The following content is used for study purpose only of ALC202 week four.

Winston Fletcher, “How the Advertising Industry is structured” in Advertising: a very short introduction. Oxford University Press, New York.


  1. The two readings for this week by Winston Fletcher offer a concise overview of the development and structure of the modern advertising industry. At the start of the first reading, Fletcher sketches the historical background to the rise of the modern advertising industry. What are the key developments he identifies?Some of the key developments that have been identified by Fletcher include imagery in products that are being advertised and the diversity of advertisers and advertising in general.
  2. Fletcher suggests that the term advertising industry is something of a misnomer used to denote “an amorphous patchwork of different companies and specializations” (4). The whole field is subtended by what he calls “a tripartite structure” between advertisers, media and agencies. What are the basic form and functions of each of these three aspects of the modern advertising industry?The first aspect of the modern advertising industry is advertisers. They include governments, retailers, charities, finance companies, and manufacturers. Advertisers pay for their advertising needs through advertising is not their primary activity. Advertising is medium of making their ends meet. Many advertisers make use of advertising as their primary means of marketing communication. The second aspect in the advertising tripartite is the media. The media includes the internet, cinema, television, radio, print, and posters. They are the modes of disbursing the advertisements and are paid to do so. The final tripartite in advertising is the advertising agencies. These are the entities that create the content in the advertisements on behalf of the client. It is the only leg of the advertising tripartite that squarely relies on advertising for subsistence.
  1. What is meant by the term “full service agency”? How and why did it develop and how and why is it now devolving into a different organisational structure?The term full-service refers to the provision of all marketing services a client would desire to have. It developed after agencies started offering additional services that were not initially advertised to their clients. It is now developing into a different organizational structure due to the move by the government to introduce the fixed rate commission.
  1. Fletcher finally gestures towards the transformative impact of the Internet. We will be addressing digital advertising in more detail later in the term but how does Fletcher suggest the Internet has added new dimensions to advertising?Fletcher suggests that the internet has added new dimensions to advertising by changing the manner in which advertisements are created and the mode of buying space.

Winston Fletcher, “The Creative Agencies: creating new campaigns” in Advertising: a very short introduction. Oxford University Press, New York.


  1. While they only occupy a relatively small component of the advertising industry as a whole, creative agencies are the most identifiable aspect of modern advertising. What, according to Fletcher, are the key roles of creative agencies?According to Fletcher, the key roles of creative agencies are to create advertisements and to buy media.
  2. Fletcher writes that “One of the most difficult lessons advertising creative people m—and advertisers – have to learn is that the messages you out into advertisements are but the means to an end” 92). What does he mean and how does this dynamic inform creative advertising practices?The end according to Fletcher, refers to how the targeted audience makes of the message contained that have been put in the given advertisement. It is very important that creative firms do not pay so much attention to the message they put in an advert but instead should be mindful about how it will be perceived by the audience since they are the “end”. It is very easy for the people to misunderstand something and when it comes to advertising, most people do not pay attention to the detail but will be drawn to remember the catchy bits. It is imperative that an advert be as brief as possible in order for people to remember it easily.
  3. Fletcher offers an extended meditation on the nature of creativity. What are some of the key issues her raises here and how does he see the discourse of creativity informing and being managed within the industrial organisation of modern advertising?The key issues that Fletcher raises after meditating about the nature of creativity include the fact that there is no universally accepted definition of creativity. The second issue is the fact that recognition of creativity varies from one person to another and in other instances, it takes time to be acceptable. Finally, the last issue that was evident was the fact that creativity does not just pop up without prior cogitation. A creative person’s mind is often fine-tuned to constantly seek ideas both consciously and subconsciously. The key issues that he raised are also informed modern advertising creativity. More often when a creative person was in possession of an advertising strategy, they would immediately start conceptualizing how to convey the message to an audience in a way that will capture their attention. This will involve adequate research in order to promote a unique advertisement. A lot of work is required to be done but within the time frames that have been set. This is because the industrial organization of modern advertising works under strict deadlines that have to be met.
  4. At the end of this chapter, Fletcher briefly highlights the importance of internationalization in contemporary advertising – something we will revisit in future weeks. How is increasing internationalisation impacting the industry and how does it relate to correlative processes of specialisation?Internationalization has assisted advertising to break the territorial boundaries that limited the industry. Currently, people are able to work and earn from any corner of the world. Graduates currently have the opportunity to showcase their skills to a bigger audience thereby increasing their worth. Due to the numerous brands in the market one is able to specialize in any field they deem fit.

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